Database Management Systems

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DBMS is software which is used to manage the collection of interrelated data.

File systems Vs DBMS:

The typical file processing system is supported by the operating systems. Files are created and manipulated by writing programs so the permanent records are stored in various files. Before the advent of DBMS, organizations typically stored the information using such systems.

Ex: Using COBOL we can maintain several files (collection of records) to access those files we have to go through the application programs which have written for creating files, updating file, inserting the records

The problems in file processing system are

  • Data redundancy and consistency
  • Difficulty in accessing data
  • Data isolation
  • Integrity problems
  • Atomicity problems
  • Security problems

To solve the above problems DBMS has been invented.

View of data:

The man purpose of DBMS is to provide users with an abstract view of the data. The data abstraction is in three levels.

  • Physical level: How the data are actually stored that means what data structures are used to store data on Hard disk

Ex: Sequential , Tree structured

  • Logical Level : What data are stored in database
  • View level : It is the part of data base Ex: Required records in table.


The collection of information stored in the database at a particular moment is called an instance of the data base.

Data base schema:

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